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The Kingdom in the North - A Greater Scandinavia by HouseOfHesse The Kingdom in the North - A Greater Scandinavia by HouseOfHesse
For the second instalment in my series exploring irredentism, I offer up my contribution to the much traversed and varied path of a 'United Scandinavia'. This is an exploration of what Northern Europe might look like if the Danish-lead Kalmar Union had survived. The union started life as a very loose personal union of the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway in 1397, where the most the three kingdoms had in common was their ruler and everything else remained unchanged. However, in this timeline the union develops into what is perhaps best described as a confederation of kingdoms: whilst the constituent parts of Scandinavia enjoy large autonomy, they do comprise a single state with a single, national parliament.
Enlarged through various territorial acquisitions and conquests from Russia, Prussia, and other surrounding states, the union was first enlarged following the Ingrian War in 1617 when Finland was separated from Sweden and made a full kingdom within the union. Following Scandinavian successes in the Northern Wars of the early 1700s, Danish possessions in the Baltics were made a Duchy, autonomous within the Danish Crown, in 1720, and much of the former Prussian province of Pomerania was added to the Danish Crown in 1721.
The union was not without its internal struggles, however, as Greenland's 1814 designation as a 'crown territory' of Scandinavia demonstrated. This followed several hundred years of colonial administration in Greenland, and was at the insistence of Swedish nobles who felt that Denmark's increasing political superiority was a threat to the integrity of the union and their own relative freedom, as Denmark had originally sought to create Greenland as a territory of the Danish crown alone. This marked a turning point in the organisation of the union, moving a way from Danish superiority toward a more equal footing for all the constituent lands.
In 1849, these changes were made official with the establishment of a constitution. The constitution formalised the name of of the union as 'The Scandinavian Realm' (rather than the proposed 'United Kingdoms of Scandinavia' or the far worse 'Scandinavian Empire') at the insistence of every member of the union bar Denmark. The constitution also detailed that each member, or 'crown' as they were officially known, was to have its own parliament, with a unified parliament representing the whole realm to be based in Kalmar, the site of the original treaty signed to declare the union. The capital cities of each 'crown' were to be equal in standing, thus the Realm has no official capital (though Kalmar is often called the de facto capital). Finally, the constitution also created Estonia-Livonia and Iceland (then including the Faeroe Islands, Shetland and Orkney) as 'crowns' within the union, and Svalbard and Magen Island as 'crown territories' of the union.
In 1918, the Duchy of the Isles was separated from Iceland at the insistence of the United Kingdom, who sought protections for English speaking minorities in Orkney and Shetland. The final territorial change came in 1973, when the 4 northern provinces of Sweden and Finland were designated an 'autonomous area' within the union (though not a full 'crown') for the Sami people.
This map shows the political situation as of 2014.

Credit to Wikipedia for information, to the wonderful Fenn-O-Manic for his exemplary maps of Finland which proved a very useful reference, and to Kuusinen, who's own vision of a United Scandinavia inspired me to attempt a 'Bokmål' of my own, though his is both better and more extensive.

See also: The Kalmar Union, Scandinavia, and Scandinavism.

DISCLAIMER: This in no way represents my views on Scandinavian, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Estonian, Pomeranian, Icelandic or Swedish irredentism; nor any of the countries mentioned
; nor irredentism as a whole. It is a work of fiction, not a political statement, and is not intended to cause offence. Please refrain from making political statements in the comments, lest you shall be subject to my wrath. That aside, comments and (constructive) criticisms are always welcome!

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Arminius1871 Featured By Owner Aug 4, 2014
What a beautiful map, this Scandinavia is definitly epic, well done!
Shikku27316 Featured By Owner Aug 3, 2014
Interesting; how did you make it? I can't seem to figure out how to get those shaded borders around the divisions (in Inkscape, anyways). Also, what language are the labels supposed to be?
HouseOfHesse Featured By Owner Aug 4, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
It took me literally years to figure out how to do it! It's not actually a border at all: what you need to do it take your object, duplicate it, fill it with a lighter colour, and then go to paths -> inset path (or dynamic offset, that way you can choose how much you want it inset). There's also an outset option. It's literally that easy, I wanted to kick myself when I found out how to do it!
The labels are a Danish influenced Scandinavian Bokmål, which is kind of like a 'standard' language for Scandinavia in this time line.
Shikku27316 Featured By Owner Aug 4, 2014
Oh my goodness, thank you so much! I've been helplessly searching for so long!

...Say, you wouldn't know how to take .svg images off the Internet and put them into Inkscape and they'll still be vector images, would you? Others have tried to help, but I think it's because I have Firefox that it doesn't work. Would you know how?
HouseOfHesse Featured By Owner Aug 15, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Not at all, I'm glad I've been able to help someone!

If you're taking stuff off Wikipedia, you need to right click on the image make sure to 'save file' rather than 'save image' (otherwise you'll just end up with a .png or something equally unhelpful). I'm afraid that for other websites I'm not too sure as what I don't make myself, I get from Wikipedia (owing to it being copyright free), and I use Chrome, so I can't really advise you on any peculiarities of Firefox. If you still can't figure it out, I'd suggest changing your browser, even if only for downloading files to use.
Sorry for the delay in replying to this, ended up rather busy the last few days!
Shikku27316 Featured By Owner Aug 16, 2014
It didn't work; I bet it's Firefox's fault...
Scarfield Featured By Owner Aug 2, 2014
Nice rendering and concept, though as an Norwegian, I can't help but feel Norway got a little bummed in this one. Finnmark (Norwegian part of Lappland): Ok, it wasn't colonized before after the Kalmar Union, so in an Alt History, it's acceptable not being a part of Norway. Nordland and Troms not so much, as it was orginally an Norwegian petty kingdom, Hålogaland, dating back to pre-unification of Norway. Jämtland "was conquered by Norway in 1178 and stayed Norwegian for over 450 years until it was ceded to Sweden in 1645" (Wikipedia). The Western Island was also in the Norwegian part of the Union,and wasn't transferred to Denmark untill after the loss of Norway to Sweden in the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. Do not worry, I'm not angry or anything like that. Just feel that Danmark, Sweden and Finland have a tendency in "Surviving Kalmar Union/Nordic Federation" maps to enlarge themself, that Norway don't. To recap: Finnmark/Lappland & Independant Western Islands) I find acceptable, but Hålogaland & Jamtland should be kept as Norwegian to keep in line with the Alt History, with no wars between Denmark-Norway and Sweden to justify a transfer of territory.

It it is not very common to refer to United Kingdom as "UK",  but as Great Britain ("(Kongeriget) 
Storbritannien"), in the Nordic Countries, though it would be "Det Forenede Kongerige" in that case. "Den Russiske Føderation", or just "Russland". Also, the Crown Territory of Greenland/Iceland etc would be "Kronterritori(um)et Grønland/Island" in Norwegian and Swedish. I am a bit uncertain of the spelling in Danish, but at least in one word as in Norwegian and Swedish. "Den Statsforbund"? If it's a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, it would be "Det Polsk-Litauiske Statsforbund/Statssamfunn", and I do believe you missed an "t" in "Kongeriget Prøjsen". But otherwise I am impressed by the details and by your more than passable translation into Danish. 
HouseOfHesse Featured By Owner Aug 3, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thankyou! You're quite right of course, Norway has come of a bit worse, though I will admit you've pointed out a flaw in my research here. I based Norway off a map of the current Norwegian counties, which have no mention of Hålogaland (the three northern counties being Nordland, Troms, and Finnmark), thus I interpreted 'Norwegian Lapland' to be these three and treated them all as unsettled. Had I actually read a bit more, I would have discovered Hålogaland and most likely would have done as you said!
As for the naming, you're right about it being 'Det' instead of 'Den' (which I think has been left over from when I was originally planning to have the union Swedish-lead), but the names are intended to be the 'official names' rather than common ones, hence the use of 'United Kingdom' over 'Great Britain' and so on. Everything else I'm sure you're right about, so I'll set about changing those. And I did misspell Prussia too, why do I never notice these things before I put them up?! Thankyou for your advice, it's greatly appreciated!
DaneOfScandinavy Featured By Owner Aug 2, 2014
Great timeline and map, if only this nation existed. I have a minor correction though... It should be "Det Skandinaviske Rige" and not "Den Skandinaviske Rige".
HouseOfHesse Featured By Owner Aug 3, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thankyou! A United Scandinavia is something I particularly like, I have to say. I'll set about changing that, I only realised after I uploaded it that there's a few spelling issues left from when I was originally going to make the union Swedish-lead, there's always something I miss!
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